Chemical Abundances

Catalog of carbon enhanced stars and CEMP candidates

The Galactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) survey is a large scale, magnitude limited, southern stellar spectroscopic survey providing spectra, stellar parameters and chemical abundances for stars located in different components of the Galaxy. Random selection, based only on object's brightness and its celestial coordinates, implies that a representative set of peculiar stellar types are observed.

Here we focus on carbon enhanced stars which can be identified by peculiar features present in their GALAH spectra.

Non-LTE abundance patterns in M67

One of the main goals of the Galah survey is to find stellar siblings in the Galactic disk and associate them to a common parent cluster by means of chemistry and dynamics. The success of such chemical tagging hinges critically on our ability to determine the abundances of late-type dwarf and giant stars with high precision, but also to assess whether their present-day abundance patterns truly reflect their original compositions.

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Confirmation of co-moving star pairs identified in Gaia DR1

Recently, Oh et al published "Co-moving stars in Gaia DR1" (http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.02440) which identified over 13000 co-moving star pairs in Gaia DR1 based upon their proper motions and parallaxes. Some of the pairs form larger groups (e.g., they recovered the Pleiades).

About 350 of these pairs of stars are also in the Cannon 1.3 table. Oh et al found a similar sized overlap with RAVE. We would be able to use the GALAH results to investigate the 3D space motions and chemistry of these stars to identify those stars which true binaries and clusters.

t-SNE as a tool for studying clustering in the elemental abundance space

One of the main motivations for the GALAH survey is to measure abundances of many elements in sufficiently large number of stars that some of them can be identified as stars that were born in the same cluster but all indications of this fact have been lost, except for the chemical fingerprint. Chemical tagging can reveal the connection between such stars, but state of the art observations and analytical methods will be needed to actually perform this task.

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Pregalactic metal enrichment: The chemical signatures of the first stars

The emergence of the first sources of light at redshifts of z˜10-30 signaled the transition from the simple initial state of the Universe to one of increasing complexity. Recent progress in our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies, starting with cosmological initial conditions, primordial gas cooling, and subsequent collapse and fragmentation are reviewed. The important open question of how the pristine gas was enriched with heavy chemical elements in the wake of the first supernovae is emphasized.

The Chemical Signature of a Relic Star Cluster in the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy—Implications for Near-field Cosmology

We present tentative evidence for the existence of a dissolved star cluster at [Fe/H] = -2.7 in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use the technique of chemical tagging to identify stars that are highly clustered in a multi-dimensional chemical abundance space ( {C}-space). In a sample of six stars, three, possibly four, stars are identified as potential cluster stars.

The Chemical Signatures of the First Star Clusters in the Universe

The chemical abundance patterns of the oldest stars in the Galaxy are expected to contain residual signatures of the first stars in the early universe. Numerous studies attempt to explain the intrinsic abundance scatter observed in some metal-poor populations in terms of chemical inhomogeneities dispersed throughout the early Galactic medium due to discrete enrichment events. Just how the complex data and models are to be interpreted with respect to "progenitor yields" remains an open question. Here we show that stochastic chemical evolution models to date have overlooked a crucial fact.

Reconstructing Fossil Sub-structures of the Galactic Disk: Clues from Abundance Patterns of Old Open Clusters and Moving Groups

The long term goal of large-scale chemical tagging is to use stellar elemental abundances as a tracer of dispersed substructures of the Galactic disk. The identification of such lost stellar aggregates and the exploration of their chemical properties will be key in understanding the formation and evolution of the disk. Present day stellar structures such as open clusters and moving groups are the ideal testing grounds for the viability of chemical tagging, as they are believed to be the remnants of the original larger star-forming aggregates.

Chemical Homogeneity in Collinder 261 and Implications for Chemical Tagging

This paper presents abundances for 12 red giants of the old open cluster Collinder 261 based on spectra from the Very Large Telescope UVES. Abundances were derived for Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zr, and Ba. We find that the cluster has a solar-level metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.03 dex. However, most α- and s-process elements were found to be enhanced. The star-to-star scatter was consistent with the expected measurement uncertainty for all elements. The observed rms scatter is as follows: Na=0.07, Mg=0.05, Si=0.06, Ca=0.05, Mn=0.03, Fe=0.02, Ni=0.04, Zr=0.12, and Ba=0.03 dex.

Chemically Tagging the HR 1614 Moving Group

We present abundances for a sample of F, G, and K dwarfs of the HR 1614 moving group based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the Anglo-Australian Telescope UCLES instrument. Our sample includes stars from Feltzing and Holmberg, as well as from Eggen. Abundances were derived for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu. The α, Fe, and Fe-peak element abundances show a bimodal distribution, with four stars having solar metallicities, while the remaining 14 stars are metal-rich, [Fe/H]>=0.25 dex.

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